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Difference Between Micro and Macro Economics

Difference Between Micro and Macro Economics

The detailed study of producing, distributing and consuming goods and services is called Economics. A detailed study on resource allocation needs to be undertaken by Individuals, Businesses, and Governments to satisfy their needs. Two of the most important concerts in the field of Economics are Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. You need to understand the main difference between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics to understand the concepts much better.

Economics is not the study of commerce or trade alone. It is also the study of scarcity and how it affects the usage of resources and the production of goods and services. This field of study helps us to make good choices. This also helps us to understand how trade and commerce work. Whether it is just to have a cup of coffee or increasing your savings, proper planning is necessary. This holds good even with the government when they allocate resources to state governments or other resources, a business deciding on the market strategy that needs to be adopted. Economics is the guiding force that determines these decisions.

What are Micro and Macro Economics?

Economics is a very big concept. This can be divided into two main classifications. They are Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Both these categories look into the various aspects of economic analysis. They are both way too different in their approach and their scope. But both are important for a better understanding of the economic growth at large.


The part of economics that emphasises the way individuals and business firms act when it comes to making decisions and allocating resources among them. This is one of the primary concepts that will help you to understand how entities act in a larger economic system when it comes to the allocation and distribution of resources.

The key aspects of microeconomics include:

Decision Making:

Careful decision-making needs to be followed by individuals and firms when it comes to spending, saving, production, and investment.

Supply and Demand:

You need to know the difference between supply and demand and their importance in the field of economics. The study of the relation between supply and demand is called microeconomics. It also helps determine the prices and quantities in various markets.

Market Structures:

The various types of market structures are being analysed. Some of the market structures comprise competitive markets, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly.

Resource Allocation:

Resources need to be allocated perfectly in individual markets. We need to identify whether these resource allocations are being done for the welfare of the consumers and producers.

Price Mechanism:

Microeconomics identifies how the cost of a product acts as a signal to producers and consumers. This becomes a guiding factor in the allocation of resources in the market economy.

Externalities and Market Failures:

There could be situations where markets fail in the allocation of resources. This might lead to externalities and the necessity for government intervention.


The study of economics deals with the structure, performance, and decision-making of economics completely. There are specific criteria that are been kept in mind with respect to entire economic activity that deals with issues like growth, inflation, and unemployment. Some of the main aspects of macroeconomics include

National Income:

The total GDP of the country is examined. It also identifies how this income is segregated or allocated among the various sectors of the economy.

Inflation and Unemployment:

The reason and the repercussions of inflation and unemployment are analysed carefully under Macroeconomics.

Economic Growth:

It also identifies the various aspects that contribute to imminent economic growth. It also clearly explains how these economies can be expanded over time.

Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy:

Macroeconomics examines the government policies on taxation and spending and the dominance of money supply and interest rates.

International Economics:

International trade policies, exchange rates and the way economies are interconnected at a global level are also examined.

Business Cycles:

The instability in the economic activity over some time is examined. These are also known as business cycles. The various methods by which they can be organised or reduced are also discussed. 

Fundamental Principles of Microeconomics

The following are some of the fundamental principles of Microeconomics. They are:


The resources available are frugal. We need to make intelligent choices as to how to distribute them.

Opportunity cost:

The cost of any product equalises the value of the next best alternative that must have ceased.

Supply and demand:

The price of a good or service is determined by the interaction of supply and demand in a market.

Marginal analysis:

Decisions about how much of a good or service to produce or consume should be made by comparing the marginal benefit to the marginal cost.

Market efficiency:

Markets are efficient when they allocate resources to their most valuable use. 

Difference Between Micro and Macro Economics

Micro Economics

Macro Economics

Studies are conducted based on the behaviour of an individual, consumer or firm. 

Studies the behaviour of the national and international economy.

This depends on the dynamics of the specific markets within a larger economy. 

This depends on the role of national economies within international markets. 

Helps the policymakers conclude as to what provokes individuals to make economic decisions. 

Macroeconomics focuses on how nations protect their national interests when participating in the global forum. 

Eliminates the imbalances that will cause unemployment, reduction in national growth, and disrupts the laws of supply and demand

Helps individuals to find a balance between demand and supply

Scope of Micro and Macro Economics

 Macro Economics

The Scope of Macroeconomics is wide. It covers a wide range of topics. This basically handles the functioning of national and international economics. It deals with the aggregate variables such as the national income, inflation, unemployment rates, economic growth, and the policies that are framed by the government.

The scope of macroeconomics comprises the complete analyses of the national or global economy. The questions that are put forth include:

  • What are the pointers that decide the overall economic output and the employment rate in the country?
  • How does inflationary pressure arise and what are the ways to reduce it?
  • Name some of the attributes that have a relation with economic growth and development.
  • Do the government fiscal policy and monetary measures make any changes in the market economy? How?

Macroeconomics has the potential to prerogative you a complete knowledge of the economy's functioning. This includes the causes and effects of the various fluctuations in economic activity. It also includes the role of the government in stabilising the national economy.


This type of economics focuses on individual economic units. This might include consumers, individuals, and firms. The behaviour of these units is being examined regarding their interaction with each other. The way resource allocation is been done is also critically examined. Some of the important areas where microeconomics plays a larger role include supply and demand, the structure of the market, consumer theory, production cost, and various other factors that include individual decision-making.

Some of the questions that are explored by microeconomics include:

  • How to choose the various goods and services?
  • How will the behaviour of the firm have an impact on the various market outcomes and competition?
  • How do individual firms respond to outside factors like price rise, variation in income, or technology?
  • What are the factors that result in the price rise of goods and services in the market?

Best Books for Micro and Macro Economics

Some of the best books on Micro and Macro Economics are as follows:

  1. Principles of Economics By N.Gregory Mankiw.
  2. Principles of Microeconomics By N.Gregory Mankiw.
  3. Principles of Macroeconomics By N.Gregory Mankiw.
  4. Advanced Macroeconomics By David Romer.
  5. AP Macroeconomics/Macroeconomics Premium 2024 By Elia Kacapyr
  6. Principles of Microeconomics By Sharon Oster
  7. Macroeconomic Theory By M.L.Jhingan
  8. Advanced Economic Theory: Microeconomic Analysis By H.L. Ahuja
  9. Modern Microeconomics By Anna Koutsoyiannis
  10. Principles of Economics By Ben S.Bernanke

TOP University to Study Micro and Macro Economics Abroad

The advancement in the world of technology has made education accessible everywhere. There are a lot of institutions around the world that provide an extensive scope of knowledge in terms of economics. The following is the list of institutions that provide you with an economics degree.

Also Read: Best Universities in Canada for Economics

Name of the Universities


QS Rankings in 2024

No. Of Years

Fees (In INR)

Harvard University - USA

Bachelor of Arts (B.A) Economics


4 Years


Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - USA

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Economics


5 Years


Stanford University - USA

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Economics


5 Years


London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) - UK

Bachelor of Science (B.S) in Economics and Economic History


3 Years


University of Chicago - USA

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Economics


4 Years


Australian National University (ANU) - Australia

Bachelor of Arts (B.A) Politics - Philosophy and Economics


3 Years 


University of Melbourne - Australia

Master Economics


2 Years


University of Cambridge - UK

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Economics


3 Years


The difference between micro and macroeconomics is subtle yet they are intertwined when it comes to studying economics as a whole. Understanding these concerts is very important as they are very important in making decisions for individual businesses or firms or when deciding on national economic policies. We have given the best information regarding micro and macro economies. Please do get in touch with our AECC counsellors for any clarifications regarding the micro and macroeconomics course details.

AECC is one of the leading study abroad consultancy for accomplished students.  Contact AECC counsellors for any study abroad queries concerning your courses. 


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